References for Nile Muse arts
References for articles and Egyptian art on the Nile Muse
The Book of the Dead
The chapter illustrations from The Egyptian Book of the Dead are resurrected from the 1894 volume of that name by Charles H. S. Davis, in which he reprinted illustrations by Richard Lepsius and M.E. de Rouge.
Lepsius hand copied a papyrus in the Turin museum of a Ptolemaic official named Iuwefankh. In that original 1842 publication, Lepsius numbered the sections as chapters through 165. (Other Egyptologists subsequently identified additional chapters from other papyri.) Reproduced again are:
Davis' book also features reproductions of M.E. De Rouge's hand copy of a papyrus in the Louvre written in hieratic. De Rouge's version of the Hall of Osiris backlights this page (in the sole hieroglyphic, not hieratic, page of his). The figure of Thoth is a colorized excerpt from his drawing.

On-line references and Miscellaneous References

To compare an earlier version of Chapter 110, the Field of Reeds, view the colored papyrus of Ani on another site.

Scribes and lotus columns in low relief are from the tomb of Mereruka in the 6th dynasty shown on the Hieroglyphs for hire page from the Sarasoft clip art collection.

The other hieroglyphic carvings are also from the Sarasoft clip art collection, which I trust is in the public domain. I have not identified them, however, and would enjoy any enlightenment anyone can give me.

Hieroglyphs from the top of the Field of Reeds page and the top of the table of contents:

Field of Reeds/Field of Offerings, from Chapter 110 of the Lepsius copied Book of the Dead in Turin, flanked by horse hieroglyphs (a modern combination).

Hieroglyphs from the home page:

Marvel the crafts of the Black Land (Egypt); amuse yourself with beautiful horses.

Eternal spell:

Words spoken by all the gods--your soul shall live forever, it will not die--in the following of the king. From the tomb of Ramses I at Thebes. (Return to Eternally Yours page.)

E.A. Wallis Budge, The Mummy, Outlet Book Company, Random House 1989.
E.A. Wallis Budge, Tutankhamen: Amenism, Atenism and Egyptian Monotheism, 1923.
E.A. Wallis Budge, The Book of the Dead, three volume reprint, Barnes & Noble, Inc. 1956.
  • Seshet, the muse of the hieroscribe is an ancient goddess who is mentioned in Chapter 57 of the Book of the Dead as making the house plan of the deceased's "settled abode in the the celestial Annu (Heliopolis), where he had his house." Budge also shows Seshet as: .
  • Alternative representations of the goddess noted in Gardiner are:
    ; ; ; and .
Charles H. S. Davis, M.D., PhD., The Egyptian Book of the Dead, G.P. Putnam's Sons, The Knickerbocher Press, NY 1894.
Robert Talbot Kelly Egypt Painted and Described, London, Adam & Charles Black 1912; First published 1902; water color paintings 1894-1901.
James Wasserman, Eva Von Dassow, editors, The Egyptian Book of the Dead, Chronicle Books, San Francisce 1994.
  • This is a sumptuous recent volume, yet very affordable, with color reprints of the entire Papyrus of Ani and with lyrical translations by Dr. Raymond Faulkner and Dr. Ogden Goelet. In print and available.
Sir Alan Gardiner, Egyptian Grammar, Griffith Institute, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford 1988.
David Sandison, The Art of Ancient Egypt, Laurel Glen Publishing, San Diego, CA 1997.
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Translations of the Book of the Dead
Chapter 68 begins, "I am yesterday and I know to-morrow. (I am) able to be born again. (I am) the devine hidden soul..." (from Budge and Davis) So begin the hieroglyphs in the background on Eternally Yours pages. (Return to Eternally Yours page.)

Says Budge,

The LXIVth Chapter is probably one of the oldest of all in the Book of the Dead, and two versions of it seem to have existed in the earliest times. The longer version is called the "Chapter of coming forth by day in the underworld," and the shorter the "Chapter of knowing the 'Chapters of coming forth by day' in a single Chapter." On a coffin in the XIth dynasty both versions occur. The rubric of one version ascribes it to the reign of Semi-Hesep-ti, i.e., about B.C. 4266, while the rubric of the other attributes its discovery to the time of Menthu-hetep, which is clearly a mistake for Men-kau-Ra (Mycerinus). Thus in the XIth dynasty it was believed that the Chapter was looked upon as an abridgment of all the "Chapters of coming forth by day," and that it had a value which was equivalent to them all."

Here follows a short version of the rubric common to the Chapter 68, this one from the Payrus of Nebsensi in the British Museum, translated by Budge:
If this chapter be known [by the deceased] he shall be victorious both upon earth and in the underworld. He shall do whatsoever a man doeth who is upon the earth, and he shall perform all the deeds which those do who are [alive]. Now it is a great protection [given ] by the god. This chapter was found in the city of Khemennu inscribed in letters of lapis lazuli upon the block of iron which was under the feet of this god.
Return to Chapter 64 wallpaper and embossed image on the Eternally Yours page.
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